美國退出聯合全面行動計畫

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2018年5月8日,美國退出聯合全面行動計畫[1][2][3][4]

該計畫又被稱為「伊朗核協議」(英語:Iran nuclear deal)或「伊朗協議」(英語:Iran deal)、「伊核協定」,是伊朗伊斯兰共和国P5+1(包括中国法国俄罗斯英国美国5个安理会常任理事国德国)以及欧盟,於2015年7月14日在維也納簽訂的國際協定,主旨為解決伊朗核问题[5][6]

美國保守主義贊成退出聯合全面行動計畫[7][8]

歷史[编辑]

2015年7月份,與伊朗中國法國德國俄羅斯英國美國歐盟達成協議。該協議限制伊朗製造核武的能力,以換取減少經濟制裁[9]。在美國退出之前,國際原子能總署宣稱其核查人員已核實伊朗自協定以來,所履行協議中的相關承諾[10]

伊朗於2017年4月和2017年7月通過川普政府的相關確認,並遵守該協議內容[11][12]。而在2017年10月13日,唐納·川普宣布美國不再核發確認[13]

公告[编辑]

唐納·川普宣布美國於2018年5月8日退出聯合全面行動計畫。

北美東部時區下午2點,唐納·川普宣布美國退出聯合全面行動計畫[14]

評論[编辑]

支持者[编辑]

  •  以色列
    • 總理本雅明·内塔尼亚胡在美國宣布退出後的首次電視直播表示:「以色列完全支持唐納·川普總統今日的大膽決定,拒絕與德黑蘭恐怖主義政權的災難性核協議[18]。」

反對者[编辑]

外交評論[编辑]

支持國家[编辑]

反對國家[编辑]

協商國家[编辑]

中東國家[编辑]

其他國家[编辑]

中立國家[编辑]

  •  阿曼政府發表聲明,重視與美國及伊朗的友好合作關係,將協助聯合全面行動計畫的後續發展,並盡力維持中東地區的安全與穩定。阿曼外交部表示,非常重視簽署協議的五國立場,願意協助相關的國際事務[47]
  •  卡塔尔政府發表聲明,非常重視中東國家去除核子武器的相關問題,並防止鄰近國家引發核子武器競賽[48]
  •  印度政府發表聲明,呼籲以外交方式解決聯合全面行動計畫的現有爭議。 外交部表示:「簽署國家應建設性地解決聯合全面行動計畫的相關問題[49]。」

美國的公眾輿論[编辑]

根據美國有线电视新闻网在2018年5月2日和2018年5月5日期間進行的民意調查顯示,主要支持退出聯合全面行動計畫的群眾為共和黨選民,並佔支持率的51%[50]

皮尤研究中心調查中,不贊成唐納·川普宣布退出聯合全面行動計畫的美國民眾佔53%,而美國學者則佔94%[51][52][53]

美國應該退出聯合全面行動計畫嗎?[50]
保留
  
63%
撤銷
  
29%
沒意見
  
8%

影響[编辑]

2018年5月8日,美國駐德黑蘭大使館英语Embassy of the United States, Tehran周圍的抗議活動。

根據安東尼‧布林肯英语Tony Blinken表示,聯合全面行動計畫取決於伊朗是否願意遵守相關內容,以及該協議所給予伊朗的經濟利益[54]

貿易[编辑]

唐納·川普有意要制裁與德黑蘭進行貿易的歐洲公司[55]

在簽署聯合全面行動計畫後,2016年12月份伊朗與波音公司簽署170億美元的合作協議;空中客車公司則簽署190億美元[56]。而中國大陸簽訂15億美元的基礎設施交易,並且中信銀行提供伊朗銀行100億美元的信貸額度[57]

相關條目[编辑]

參考文獻[编辑]

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